covid vaccine

Everything about COVID-19 vaccines


COVID-19 vaccines will help you to resist Corona disease and its symptoms by developing an immune response in the body. Different types of vaccine are available now, but each type of vaccines works in a different way, all COVID-19 vaccines leads to develop immunity so that your body knows how to fight in the future

Pharmaceuticals all over the world are working on developing the most effective COVID-19 vaccines. The most common COVID-19 vaccine which is using in clinical trials now are:

mRNA vaccines:

It is called messenger RNA vaccine uses genetically engineered mRNA which teaches our cells how to make a piece of protein that triggers the immune system in our body and this immune response develops an antibody that fights against the COVID-19.

Vector Vaccines:

It is an updated version of a different vector to transfer important instructions to our cells. Once the viral vector (Vaccine) enters into your cells, it transfers the genetic material of the corona virus that gives the command to your cells to start making S protein copies. When the cells show the S proteins, the immune system will react by developing antibodies and protecting white blood cells. If the person becomes infected with the corona disease virus, these antibodies will protect and defend the virus.

Protein Subunit Vaccines:

This is one type of Corona disease vaccine which contains non-dangerous S proteins. When the S protein identifies by the immune system, it develops antibodies and protective white blood cells. When the person becomes infected with the Coronavirus disease, the antibodies will defend the virus


COVID-19 Vaccines which is available

Pfizer-BioNTech COVID-19 Vaccine

It is the first COVID-19 vaccine to receive an FDA EUA after the company reported positive clinical trial data.

  • It is an MRNA Vaccine
  • Almost 95% effective in preventing COVID-19 and its symptoms
  • It is 89% safe and effective for people with health conditions such as Diabetics, Obesity, etc.

Required Dose

  • Two doses, 21 days apart or up to six weeks apart
  • Some protection provided after the first dose

Preferred age group

  • People with an age group of 16 and above are safe for receiving the vaccine

Side effects

  • Fever
  • Fatigue
  • Headache
  • Pain at the injection site
  • Chills
  • Nausea and Vomiting
  • Swollen lymph nodes

How well it works

It is 95% effective in preventing infection for those without prior infection, moreover, the effectiveness of the vaccine depends on different types of variables such as age group, gender, ethnicity, race, body mass index, etc.


Moderna COVID-19 Vaccine

It is the second authorized vaccine for emergency use. It is an mRNA vaccine and having the same technology as the Pfizer-BioNTech one and with equally high efficacy at preventing COVID-19


  • Two doses, 28 days apart or up to six weeks apart
  • Some protection provided after the first dose

Recommended age group

Adults 18 and older. Moderna is still testing the vaccine in children ages 12-17, and children aged 6  months to 12 years.

Common side effects

Same as the Pfizer vaccine, Moderna having the side effects such as chills, fever, headache, pain, tiredness, and/or redness and swelling at the injection site, all of which generally reduce within a day or two. In a rare situation, mRNA vaccines may  trigger anaphylaxis, a severe reaction that can be treated  with epinephrine

How well it works

Moderna is 94 % effective at preventing symptomatic infection for those who have no evidence of previous COVID-19 infection. The vaccine shows satisfactory results  in clinical trials among people of different  age group, race, sex, and different ethnicity and among people with an underlying medical problem and sometimes the efficacy rate drops to 86.4% for people ages 65 and older


Janssen/Johnson & Johnson COVID-19 Vaccine

It is FDA granted vector vaccine.  While comparing the Pfizer and Moderna vaccines, this one is easier to store at a refrigerator temperature and requires only an administration, which has made it easier to distribute.


  • One dose
  • Some protection provided two weeks after vaccination

Recommended age group

  • People above 18 years of age
  • People of the above age group have an allergic reaction to any of the medication or the vaccine’s ingredients or the people who are allergic to polysorbate are not recommended for the vaccination

Common side effects

Injection site pain, headache, fatigue, muscle pain, chills, fever, and nausea, moreover sometimes swelling on the site

Note: If your symptoms continue more than eighteen days, and are undergo any unexplained difficulties and symptoms, seek immediate medical care, furthermore, severe symptoms may include leg pain, severe back pain, dyspnea, abdominal pain, severe headache, new neurological symptoms, unexpected inflammation, and tiny reddish spots on the skin.

How well it works

  • 66% effective at preventing the COVID-19 virus with symptoms while it is 85% effective at preventing the COVID-19 virus with severe illness



Covaxin has been developed and manufactured by Bharat Biotech International Ltd (Hyderabad, India) in cooperation with the Indian Council of Medical Research (ICMR) and the National Institute of Virology (NIV). It is an inactivated vaccine, which has been prepared on a tried and tested platform of dead viruses.


Two doses three weeks apart

Recommended age group

Adults above 18 years of old

Common side effects

Fever, Tenderness, pain, Chills warmth, redness, nausea or vomiting itching, pain at the injection site anyhow all of which generally resolve within a day or two.



It has been developed by the Oxford-AstraZeneca and is being manufactured by the Serum Institute of India (SII). Covishield has been developed using the viral vector platform which is a totally different technology.


Two doses four to twelve weeks apart

Recommended age group

Adults above 18 years old

How well it works

Both Covaxin and Covishield vaccines have shown more than satisfactory results. The effectiveness of the Covishield vaccine is nearly 90% as per the global reports while the Covaxin’s 81% according to interim 3rd phase trial results. Covishield, on the other hand, has shown a very satisfactory efficacy of 62 percent.



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